• Foreign exchange implications. Although the first place on the importance of international tourism for national economies is given to the revenue currency, and its possible significant leakage. Developing countries are forced to import more food and goods to tourists, as well as the necessary equipment for the travel industry. According to estimates of the World Bank, imports of goods for tourists accounted for 15-55% of revenues depending on the development of the economy and the performance of the tourism industry on local resources. There is also an import, due to the impact of “demonstration effect”. Tourists, arriving in industrialized countries contribute to the imports of foreign consumer goods.
And yet, despite this, international tourism continues to grow, expanding its goals. Tourism classified:
— order — routing-cognitive, sport and recreation, community, resort, ski, festival, hunting, shopping tourism, religious, educational;
degree of mobility — travelling, stationary, mixed;
— form of participation — individual, group, family;
— age — Mature, youth, children, mixed;
— duration — one-day, multi-day, transit;
— use of vehicles — road, rail, air, water, Cycling, equestrian, combined;
— according to seasonally — active tourist season, misison, the off-season;
— geography — Intercontinental, international, regional;
— mode of transportation — walking, using traditional means of transport, exotic modes of transport.
In recent years, the development of international tourism is due to certain features.
1. Changed purpose of tourism. If earlier the main purpose of international tourism was the summer holidays, now people prefer active recreation, sports, health care. Since the early 80s, tourism has developed in order to maintain physical fitness and treatment. To do this, create specialized tourism company, offering a variety of routes such direction. New forms of recreation and entertainment (Opera performances in Egypt, Brazil carnival, Golf, etc.) require the development of new cultural engineering. Increasing the share of business tourism, its rate twice that of other types of tourism. It accounts for 55% of global demand for the accommodation in four and five star hotels. This is due to the internationalization of business, which in recent times has affected not only TNCs, but also joint ventures. In France the cost of business travel represents 2% of the value of exports of French companies.
2. Modified forms of international cooperation. In key sectors of the tourism industry is dominated by TNCs: the share of 12 major hotel chains have 5 thousand to 1 million hotels rooms, their aggregate turnover is $ 15 billion. The company-tour operators provide service 80% of organized tourists. Expanding production cooperation in the creation of a specialized material and technical base of international tourism under the license of foreign firms; these linkages are characterized by a high coverage, resistance, and depth are based on long-term relationships. One common form remains the creation of joint tourist agencies in direct implementation and provision of tourist services, trade and industrial cooperation with foreign firms and organizations that design, build and operate the material and technical base of tourism, cooperation in personnel training; cooperation in research; cooperation in the provision of specific services, for example, the country’s accession to the “world tourism voucher”.
3. Increases the cost of tourist services. The high level of capital intensity gives to international tourism the character of heavy industry. Modern hotels require very expensive equipment, the payback period exceeds 5 years. For many countries, this often means immobilization of capital necessary to Finance development. Besides expensive hotels are operated seasonally uneven: in the early 80s, the average level of its use in the world amounted to 50%. The creation of tourist centers requires infrastructure development, including based on the latest information technologies. By some estimates, infrastructure spending is two times higher than the direct investment in construction. Due to the high capital cost of each job increases. In Eastern Africa, the hotel sector wages are on average two times more than in industry. Large investments in training. The internationalization of tourism reinforces the dominance of foreign MNCs and often leads to a reduction of remuneration of local staff.
4. The characteristic feature and unique advantage of these services as a commodity is that a large part of them are made with minimal place and typically without the use of the national currency.
5 . Distribution of international tourism by country reflects the uneven socio-economic development. Thus, developing countries account for 1/4 of the world’s flow of foreign tourists. (According to international statistics, foreign tourists are those visiting the country for any purpose, except the professional work paid in this country.) On the world map of international tourism clearly stands out center and periphery, while most countries at the same time and accept and deliver tourists. In 1996, Western Europe and North America received 72% of all world revenues from international tourism, but their share in total payments amounted to 71%. These countries have attracted 77% of all tourists, while countries in Africa to 2.6, in Latin America — 6, Asia and Oceania — 11%. Nevertheless they received from international tourism 55 billion. — second place on the major sources of income.
According to WTO estimates, the volume of revenues from international tourism depends on its type, but also on the method and level of national control. In developed tourist countries from 1/3 to 2/3 the cost of the tour remains in place depending on the type of use of transport and financial control over the hotels. In developing countries with developed tourism services remains 2/3 of the total expenses for the organization of the tourism (tour cost + expenditure of tourists). In the developing countries located at long distance from markets remains 40-50% of total costs and only 20% if the means of transport and of controlled foreign companies. From the total income deducted the expenses on the import of food, equipment (the cost of the latter, for example, in the Bahamas account for 43% of all foreign exchange earnings); costs in foreign currency to Finance investment in international tourism (construction materials, machines, equipment for hotels); the transfer abroad of profits, interest on loans, salaries of foreign workers, money on advertising in foreign agencies. As a result, 40-50% of the income goes abroad in the form of payment of dividends and wages.