International tourism associated with the movement of capital, and the sale of services has a considerable impact on the balance of payments of individual countries, contributing to their transformation into active or passive. Sometimes counting and special tourist balance, which characterizes the ratio of revenues from foreign tourists in the country and the costs of its tourists abroad. In the countries most attractive to foreign tourists, the tourism balance, generally positive (France, Italy, Spain, Mexico, etc.), and in countries where the exit of tourists exceeds their arrival (Germany, Scandinavian countries, Canada, etc.), it is negative.
Especially important and complicated question about international classification of tourism according to purpose (type). Different authors offer many similar classifications, but judging from the recommendations of the world tourism organization, these goals are the five
Leisure, recreation and holidays were and remain the main purpose of tourism, and accounting was only 1/2 of world tourism. This type of tourism is also the greatest internal diversity, including travel, excursions, Hiking, relaxing on the beach, climbing, sea and river cruises, tourist bases and camps, visits to cultural and sports events, shops, etc. the Share of business and professional travel in international tourism is about 16 %. This participation in congresses and scientific symposiums, lecturing and concerts, training and education, technical dispatch for equipment installation, diplomats, employees of international organizations and others Visiting friends and relatives (27 %) includes trips for the purpose of maintaining friendships and family ties. For treatment go to foreign resorts, head to the sanatorium, clinics and hospitals. And travel abroad for religious purposes includes participation in religious holidays (the biggest one in recent years was devoted to the 2000th anniversary of the birth of Jesus Christ), visit to religious centres and meetings. In some cases, huge proportions of the pilgrimage (e.g. to Mecca).
Along with this there are other classifications of international tourism. So, it is divided into seaside, mountain, river, sea, city. Recently began increasingly to write about environmental tourism ( ecotourism), which is also divided into scientific, educational, recreational. Its objects are national parks, private landscapes, natural, cultural and cultural attractions. Of course, many ecotourists are traveling on their own and neighbouring countries, but still their main stream is sent from Europe and North America in tropical countries (Kenya, Tanzania, Costa Rica, Ecuador). It is estimated that ecotourism has become the fastest growing branch of world tourism. All the more widespread and extreme tourism is travel in the Arctic, the Antarctic (annually more than 10 thousand people), skydiving on the North pole, descend into the depths of the ocean. There are articles about the prospects of space tourism. As for classification of tourism trips according to time, they can last from one to two days to several months. However, in recent times, experts note the growing interest of tourists to short-term trips (e.g., weekend and holidays).
The objectives of the international tourism
By mode of transport international tourism is divided into road, air, rail, sea and river, and the ratio between them is changing. Over the past two decades, especially increased volume of air travel, which in the mid-1990s, came in first place (in 2006, 46 % of international tourist trips). Operation of large aircraft-Airbus, the organization is chartered (rented) flights at reduced rates, the benefits in speed and comfort has led to the fact that the transportation of tourists by air began to grow particularly quickly – especially on long-haul routes between North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific region. Automobile tourism, which until recently was the leader, now slightly inferior to the air. Buses and private vehicles serve mainly tourist travel between adjacent countries on short and medium distances – primarily in Europe, with high level of urbanization and suburbanization and has a dense network of roads. But the role of water and railway transport in international tourism reduced respectively to 7 and 4 %. The use of these modes of transport are also particularly characteristic of Europe.
Separately to say about sea cruise tourism, which started to develop in the 1950s and in the 1990s acquired the character of this boom. Back in 1980 on such cruises was attended by 1.5 million passengers, and in 1996, to 6.5 million Among the reasons for the rapid growth in the number of marine tourists, is the overall dynamic development of the tourism industry, saturation of visiting the most popular tourist areas, the combination of the vessel properties of the vehicle, a floating hotel and entertainment center, large educational and recreational opportunities for sea cruises.
Their length has a very wide range: from one day to several months. Now the world has formed four major area of cruise tourism. First among them is the Caribbean, the most fit for the reception of tourists from the United States. It is followed by Mediterranean sea (the Black sea and the Canary Islands), North and Baltic sea, the most attracting tourists from Europe. But especially the rapidly growing cruise tourism in the countries-archipelagoes in the Asia-Pacific region. To this list we can add a more exotic cruise itineraries to the shores of Spitsbergen, Greenland, travelling around Africa, Australia and even Antarctica. Now in the world built more than 200 comfortable cruise ships, the construction of which specialize primarily Norway and Finland.
Prospects for international tourism are usually priced very high. According to the forecast of the WTO, in 2010 the world will be about 1 billion travelling abroad. This means that compared with 1990, their number will more than double. And by 2020, believed to be ininternational tourism will take part about 1,5 billion people.