International tourism is one of the forms of exchange of services. In the basis of the tourist boom that swept the world in recent decades, are specific economic, social and other reasons. It is primarily the technological revolution, with which is associated a whole new level of productive forces. It’s a global phenomenon of urbanization, forcing residents of large cities to seek rest in other regions and countries. This “transportation revolution,” especially the rapid development of motorization and aviation. This General increase in the quality and standard of living, increasing income and duration of the leave. Finally, and General growth of culture, which causes the growth of the cognitive needs of people.
One of the prominent domestic human geography writes in a recently released book: “the Main resource of tourism – diversity of the world. The desire to look great “the land of the people” makes you want to visit huge cities and undeveloped, wild places, to see the amazing mountain peaks and the tranquil landscapes of plains, forests and lakes, historical monuments and pristine nature preserves… For a city-dweller, tired of the noise, the crowds, the standard of high-rise buildings in urbanized areas, important complete change of experiences and lifestyles in sparsely populated resort towns on the beach, in the middle belt villages, in huts and shelters in the mountains.”
The most vivid expression of the tourist boom finds in the two indicators – number of participants in international tourism and the income from it. The dynamics of both the indicator shown in table 166.
DYNAMICS of INTERNATIONAL TOURISM IN 1950-2006.
Analysis table 166 shows that in 1950-2006, the number of international tourists has increased by almost 34 times, and revenues from this service increased 365 times! According to the world tourism organization (WTO) in the mid-1990s in world trade in goods and services, the share of tourism accounted for more than 1/10, which allowed him to take a seat after the export of oil and cars. And in trade in services, its share has exceeded 1/3.
Factors, influencing the development of international tourism, detailed study of N. S. Mironenko and other economic-geographical graphs. Typically, these authors identify several groups of such factors.
Firstly, these include socio-economic factors that play a major role. When discussing these factors, we usually mean the General level of development of the country, the structure of its economy, quality of life, socio-professional structure of society, its educational level, degree of urbanization and population mobility, political stability, etc.
Recently in postindustrial countries on tourist flows has a growing impact and age structure of the population. Statistics shows that most of the tourist-recreational mobility are people aged 30 to 50 years. Not less than 1/5 of all tourists are young people in developed countries have enough material, have a good education and strive to meet their diverse educational interests; among them are group, and “loner”. However, more attention all researchers pay on how quickly the international (and domestic) tourism increases the proportion of elderly (over 65 years). In principle this is not surprising, because older people belonging to the so-called third age tourist has become accustomed to tourist visits in young and Mature years, has gained a lot of experience traveling and am not going to deny myself this pleasure and after retirement.
Secondly, among the factors, influencing the development of international tourism, and include recreational and resource potential of the territory, reflected in the quantity and quality of natural, cultural and historic resources. But you need to keep in mind that the influence of recreational resource potential is usually also mediated by socio-economic factors and primarily depend on the size and nature of the recreational needs of the population.
Thirdly, a considerable role is played by the infrastructure factor, which is determined by the level of development of production and social infrastructure. However, it is possible to tell and about special tourism infrastructure, accommodation facilities (hotels, camping sites, tourist bases, etc.) and transportation of tourists.
Fourthly, one should consider the geographical status, which acts in all their varieties: and physical and geographic location that largely determines the set of natural and recreational resources, and geographic location, particularly in relation to major tourism markets, and transport-teoreticheskogo provisions, and, finally, the geopolitical position, because the proximity of an area to hotspots of international tension deters him from tourists. It is typical that the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 in the US, the US strikes on Afghanistan, and then the beginning of the war in Iraq led to a sharp reduction in the inflow of tourists in Muslim countries.
Let us add that sometimes, along with the allocate objective and subjective factors influencing international tourism. They are determined by changes in the psychology of modern man, and affect his relationship, his personality, other people and their social groups, as well as to the environment.
And international tourism has a very important impact on socio-economic development of individual countries. To the greatest extent it results in increased employment: in our days only in the field of international tourism directly and indirectly employs more than 150 million people. In economically developed countries, it employs an average of 5 % of the working population, while the small developing countries-the”landlords”, the figure sometimes reaches 50% or more.
The main object of such employment – the tourism industry. It includes: enterprises that provide services for tourist accommodation (hotels, motels, campings, boarding houses, catering); tourist companies working in the sphere of tourism; transport organisations engaged in transportation of tourists; educational institutions engaged in training and retraining of tourism personnel; information and advertising services; tourism authorities; enterprises for production of goods tourist services; retail trade.