The development of tourism, growth of tourism services increases the number of jobs. According to experts, currently the tourism industry employs over 100 million people, every 16th job in the world now comes from tourism, and by 2005, every 8th working-age people in the world will be busy in this sector.
International tourism is an active source of foreign exchange earnings. For example, most of the revenue from international tourism in the total revenues from exports of goods and services is: Spain – 35%, Australia and Greece – 36%, Switzerland – 12, Italy 11, Portugal – 21 and in Cyprus is 52 %. In most developing countries, the share of foreign tourism accounts for 10-15% of revenues from exports of goods and services. However, in some countries this percentage is much higher, for example, in Colombia it is 20%, Jamaica – 30, -55 Panama and Haiti -73%.
Tourist business stimulates the development of other sectors of the economy: construction, trade, agriculture, production of consumer goods etc.
In addition to the impact on the economy of many countries, international tourism affects the social and cultural sphere, the ecology. And the latter, in turn, affect tourism and tourists.
The development of international tourism also causes some negative effects, for example, inflation, environmental destruction, violation of the traditions of the local population, etc.
Factors that caused the rapid development of tourism in recent years include the following:
the growth of social wealth and incomes;
the reduction in working time and increased leisure time;
the increased use of transport for tourist trips (by air, road, etc.);
development of communication tools and information technologies;
significant changes in the structure of spiritual values, etc. a characteristic feature of modern tourism is its mass. Massive tourism has acquired in the postwar years. From a luxury have become a necessity for most people in many countries of the world. Massive demand for tourist services gave rise to mass Tourism production. Is formed by strong tourist industry with its own, individual, product, production cycle, methods of organization and production management.
Under the tourism industry understand the totality of production, transport and trading companies, producing and marketing of tourist services and the goods of tourist demand. These include hotels and other tourist accommodation, transport, catering enterprises, the enterprises producing Souvenirs and other goods of tourist demand.
In Ukraine tourism has developed is still insufficient, the process of establishment of the tourist industry and tourist complex in General. However, there is some progress – there was adopted the Law of Ukraine “On tourism of September 15, 1995 This law is important primarily to the fact that the state recognizes tourism as one of priority directions of development of the national culture and economy and provides a favourable environment for the development of tourist activities.
This bill defines state policy and state regulation in the field of tourism. Positive moment in the development of tourism market in Ukraine is the growth and influence of tour operators and travel Agency firms. Today, well-known in our country and abroad such firms as “hamalia”, “Self”, “Taurus”, “Svetlana”, “Satellite”, etc. are working on preparation of qualified personnel in this area. However, these are only the first steps towards the organization of tourism as a highly profitable industry.
Tourism as a commodity is realized in the form of services, which are expressed in the useful effect that satisfies a particular need at the time of its discovery. This service can be provided. or things, or in the course of action of living labor. According to these two methods of production of services there are two types of services themselves.
The first type is for services that are mediated by things, i.e. material. For example, services for the production of food for tourists.
The second type is a servant, the action is directed at a living person or his environment, i.e. intangible. These include services for the implementation of tourist trips, the tourist service in the hotel, organization of theatrical performances, etc. In this case, the work provides a service not a thing, and in role activities. However, both services have value and are a commodity. All activity tourist economic entity is related to the provision of services.
Tourist services offered as a commodity on the world market are diverse. They include:
1) in tourist accommodation (in hotels, motels, boarding houses, campsites, boating);
2) the movements of tourists in the country and in the country different kinds of transport;
3) to ensure tourists with food (in restaurants, cafes, bars, taverns, Boarding houses);
4) aimed at satisfying the cultural needs of tourists (visiting theatres, museums, natural and historical parks, festivals, etc.);
5) aimed at satisfying the business interests of the tourists (participation in congresses, symposia, scientific conferences, fairs and exhibitions);
6) services trading enterprises (selling Souvenirs, gifts, postcards, etc.);
7) documentation (passports, visas, etc.).
The law of Ukraine “On tourism” defines travel services as services of subjects of tourist activities, accommodation, dining, transport, information and advertising services and services of cultural institutions, sports, recreation, etc. designed to meet the needs of tourists.
The tourist can be provided, or certain types of services or full services. The latter is given by sale of so-called inclusive tours and package tours.
Inclusive tours are most often used in aviation. The cost of transportation to the destination and back in this case is determined on the basis of specially developed inclusive fares that are sometimes below normal. They also include the cost of accommodation tourists in the hotel, food and other services. Inclusive tours are used for both group and individual trips.
The package tour also involves providing the client with a full range of services, but it may not include transportation services.
Fundamental differences between these types of complex services. Inclusive-tour is more common in Western countries, package tour in USA. The structure of these tours depends on a particular country, the composition of tourists and their purchasing power, the nature of services, their range and quality.